M11 Final

This assignment is in lieu of reading Chapter 11 (but you are welcome to)

After watching all of these short videos, post a short paragraph on your thoughts / insights on the dilemma, if you think the discussion was accurate, and your position on the  comments.  Be sure to include the reference to which video you are discussing. Scroll to the bottom when you are ready to post.  Responses to your classmates are not required, but encouraged.

Workplace issues:

Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: The Ethics Guy on ABC News

 

Philosophical presentations:

Peter Singer –  Drowning Child

 

Noam Chomsky – The Alternative to Capitalism

 

Noam Chomsky – Why Marijuana is Illegal and Tobacco is Legal

M9 (Hawks)

After watching the video on the Hawthorn Effect, I thought about all the jobs I have worked and realized that only one of those jobs truly had a ‘Hawthorne Effect’.

I have only ever worked in four different jobs. One of which I quit due to school and other schedule related issues, Two of them closed down (one for not enough revenue and one for remodeling) and One of which I currently work at now. Out of these four some have attempted something close to the Hawthorne Effect but either it didn’t work out for the business to do so or the company only did so, for lack of a better word, half-heartedly. The job that I am currently working at is probably the best example I have at the Hawthorne Effect. Once I got to the job and talked with the main manager of the place before and after hiring, I felt that the place was a lot different from my first three jobs before this. That alone instantly motivated me to do well at the job. When hired I was told that I had a break, PTO (Paid Time Off which was something I didn’t know existed before this job) and a chance to sign up for a healthcare plan. All of these things I have never heard of before then. The motivation I felt before skyrocketed. I wanted to do well for this job because I felt that they are treating me well. I have been working at this job for almost three years now and I still feel the same way about it. Not just because of the stuff stated above either but because of the co-workers and managers too.

This brings me to the question of describing a supervisor that I had worked with and whether or not they were good at what they did. In this case, the supervisor at my current job has always been very motivational not just to me or their own section that they supervises but to all of the employees in the company. They always try to make their workers feel like if they have any sort of problem or work related issues that we can talk to them about it. They would also ensure that everyone is doing well physically (if worker looks unwell or if worker might be doing something that could cause injury) and mentally (asks if worker is ok/needs a moment if stressed). They make me, probably they rest of the company too, feel like they understand that we are all human and have our own personal quirks and we have things to deal with outside of work. However, said Supervisor also makes sure that everyone knows what the job is, to ask if we have any questions about what to do on said job and that the job gets done. The only way I can describe it is that they understand and try to accommodate but they also know work needs to be done. They somehow balance the two. This supervisor always finds someway to get the two to balance which I am slowly understanding is hard to do sometimes. Compared to other supervisors I have worked for, they are  the kind of supervisor or manager I want to try and be someday.

Thank you very much for reading.

M7 – Liam Cassell

Research and find an alternative/opposing point of view to Climate Change as proposed in the Introduction.  

An article written  by  Matt Ridley and published by The Spector has some different  ideas on global warming then what was presented  in the book [1]. In “Why climate change is good for the world’ Matt Ridley argues why climate is  a good thing. His main arguments are as follows:  fewer winter deaths, lower energy costs, better agricultural yields, probably fewer droughts, and maybe richer biodiversity. The crux of most of his arguments is that since  carbon monoxide help plants grown the rising CO2 levels will provide better condition to grow plants. This in return will help bring down the cost in money and energy to produce our food which would be a huge benefit. There were more ideas presented in this article and it is an interesting read even if I don’t  agree with all of them.    

 

The traditional business attitudes toward the environment that have encouraged environmental degradation and resource depletion.  

I would argue that  traditional business attitudes  do not encourage  environmental  degradation  but rather does not reward  environmental  conservation. Meaning companies  can get more money from being less eco-friendly, but given the chance to gain or save money they would be more eco-friendly. This can be seen in investments in energy efficient  technologies. As well as  companies  changing their  regulations to obtain tax breaks and other  government subsidies. This why we should encourage  funding for  research and government programs that are involved in these  entities.      

 

Does nature have value in itself?  

Nature does have a price since you can pay money to obtain some nature. This can either be in the form of buying land or spending money on a trip to Alaska to get the experience the wild. Due to this yes nature does have value.    

 

Lastly, as you read through Chapter 7, answer this question: Who should pay the cost for protecting the environment — those responsible for causing the pollution or those who stand to benefit from protection and restoration. Explain your position.  

Everyone  is  responsible for the environment. From boy scouts I learned I should leave nature as I found it and only take pictures. I fully believe this think that everyone should be held accountable. Therefore, everyone should be responsible for the cost because we have all added to the problem in one way or another.    

[1] Ridley, Mike. “Do the Benefits of Climate Change Outweigh the Costs?’                        RealClearScience,www.realclearscience.com/blog/2018/06/19/do_the_benefits_of_climate_change_outweigh_the_costs.html.  

 

M7 (Hawks)

After Reading Chapter 7 here are the questions that stood out to me in the number 6 ‘Learning Objective’ on page 248:

What obligations do we have to future generations?

If I had not read the chapter and answered the question with just the knowledge I had before that I would have stated that we have much obligations to the future generation. We come from different generations and what they left us and taught us had an impact to us. So why shouldn’t we look back and ponder what we can do to at least stabilize a decent grounding for the future? However, as I had stated, once I had read the chapter I realized the difficulty of that process of change and the thoughts of the future generation in general. Not everyone is going to agree to do something to possibly help future generations if it hinders something they can utilize for their own gains in the present. That’s not to say that I don’t think that said present gain could be used for what they think is their possible future but I am saying there are multiple choices people have for either present use or future use. What a person decides to do with those choices is completely up to them. Let’s say even if everyone agrees to try and preserve resources for the future generations, who is to say that that is what the future generation wants? An example I’ll make is this one; Person X does not care for things like parks and mountain hiking trail or things like that but is more focused on the now for themselves in big cities and invests in corporations where as Person Y is opposite of Person X. Person Y does everything they can to protect the said parks and resources for they future child, Person Z. When Person Z Is born and Person Y passes away, who is to say that Person Z will become like Person Y? What if Person Z decides to live  like Person X does? Point is, we as people can try to do what we think is best for the future but do we really know what is best? With these thoughts in mind, I still have the same ideals that I had but I feel like I am more open to the fact that there is more than just a ‘black and white’ point of view. There is a ‘gray’ area. So, for me, I’m going to try to do what I think is best for ‘my’ future generation and I understand everyone else in the world has their own vision of that. I now say whether or not we have an obligation to our Future Generation is complex and Completely up to moral opinions.

Does nature have Value in itself?

Following up with the last question, I kind of view this question in the same way. One person may see that nature has value in multiple different ways and would want to put a lot of stock into protecting said value where as another person can only see 1 or 2 ways that nature has value and not put any other thought into it. This question, unlike the question before, however has more concrete evidence to prove one side is more logical than the other. If a person is looking at nature for its beauty and wonderment then it is based off of opinion. If a person is looking at nature for its resources and livelihood then it is based off of facts. This is all dependent though on how nature itself is viewed. This brings it back to how the main basis is moral opinion.

So it is fair to say that both the questions really can only be answered with one persons opinion or that the question cannot really be answered.

 

To finish this module, the question was asked to us for our opinion on if pollution costs should be put more on the companies that cause the polluting or the costs should be put on the people that stand to benefit from protection and restoration. My belief on this is that I think it could benefit from a little bit of both. Both parties should pay. However, I believe that the companies that caused the pollution should do a bit more of the pay. As of right now, in my mind, this is slightly fair (I say slightly because I know that the companies, corporations, and people that benefit from the protection of resources will have their own say as to why this is unfair) way of pollution compensation. The way I’m thinking right now is we all benefit in someway to both the protection of the environment as well as the polluting of it. If both parties agree to that statement then it should work out for both parties. Then there’s the fact I said more payment to the companies/corporations on this. This is because I think if that polluting in the way that they do is the only way they can think of doing their business with no other alternatives then they should at least pay for the potential damages that follow up with their choices other than the main choice they are working with (thought process being a paper mill can do more damage to the environment then just the deforestation of trees and how much the environment is impacted by that one thing). So maybe something like 60/40 or something like that. I don’t know. That’s just my thought process as of now.

Thank you very much for the read.

 

M6: Bayer (Arthur Luebke)

Between the 1970s and 1985, Bayer sold blood products to hemophiliacs and unknowingly infected between 6,000 and 10,000 customers in the United States with HIV and hepatitis C. When the company laboratories realized that the blood products were contaminated, the financial investment in the products was considered too high to destroy the inventory. The company misrepresented the results of their own research and “dumped” the contaminated products to overseas markets in Asia and Latin America. Bayer paid out 600 million dollars to settle lawsuits brought by thousands of American victims.

Goldberg, Suzanne. May 23rd 2003. The Guardian. Bayer Division ‘knowingly sold’ HIV-infected Protien.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/may/23/aids.suzannegoldenberg

M4Thornton

From the perspective of being in favor of ‘sweatshops’, I understand how they support and influence these countries by providing options for better employment. Author Nicholas Kristof, New York Times (online), states he lived in “East Asia, watching as living standards soared- “. This relates to the Benjamin Powell reading and how people hope to gain employment with these factories. Providing jobs to third world countries is better than digging through garbage (Kristof) or having to resort to prostitution (Powell). This closely relates to the “profit motive’ (Pg. 123) in the chapter reading supporting that ‘sweatshop’ workers have a self-interest for their choice in working long hours and in harsh working conditions.

Large conglomerates should continue to have sweatshops to encourage growth and development for third world countries. At the same time, the business approach needs some improvement, so not to take away jobs from these poorer countries. Sweatshops are an investment and part of that investment should be securing a safe and adequate factory for production. In doing so, it could save reputations, provide less chances of interruptions to production, and who knows it could be a tax write off.

 

 

Shaw, Willam H. Business Ethics: The Nature of Capitalism.Cengage Learning, 2017.

 

Powell, Benjamin. “In Defense of “Sweatshops”. The Library of Economics and Liberty. June 2, 2008. https://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/y2008/Powellsweatshops.html

 

Kristof, Nicholas. “Where Sweatshops Are a Dream’. Opinion, OP-ED Columnist, The New York Times. Jan. 14, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/15/opinion/15kristof.html?searchResultPosition=8

M2 (Brumbaugh)

In chapter two of our book we looked at normative theories of ethics. Utilitarianism is the moral belief that “we should always act to produce the greatest possible balance of good over bad for everyone affected by our actions’ (Shaw, 49). During Christmas two years ago, I decided to make care packages. It contained an assortment of granola bars, socks, hand sanitizer, tissues, hand warmers, a flash lights, a blanket, tooth brush and tooth paste. My goal was to walk around town giving them out to people that looked in need of these items. My action was driven by my moral ethics to help benefit the majority. I did think about how people could be offended by this gesture, and decline. One man in particular did, he let me know how disrespectful I was to ask him if he needed a care package because he could support himself. I took this situation personally since my motives came only from love and empathy. Even though I may have hurt his feelings, many others were thankful for my gesture which outweighed any negatives. These actions reflect utilitarianism, because I produced more good on a larger scale over bad over the one upset individual. Furthermore, this benefiting the community as a whole.

Module 1 (Horsley)

How do we develop our ethics? What are the primary sources for us to develop our ethical position?

On a personal basis we develop our ethics from environmental factors that take play in our early lives. Childhood is usually when we are taught moral decisions and right from wrong. If a child is raised by ethically upstanding parents one could assume that the child will then be ethically good as well, however, although out ethical views start being molded at a young age there are many factors that could skew a good persons ethics as they progress through life.  

The environmental factors that create the development of our ethical standings come from sources such as; family members, cultural upbringing, religious beliefs, and philosophical ideals. While family members are unlikely to change throughout developmental stages the rest of these sources are like to develop as you do.

 

                                                                                                          Works citied

https://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/intro_1.shtml

M1 (Cassell)

I believe that peoples morality come from a drive to fit into a culture. Something that the book mentioned was conformity. This is the driving force behind people wanting to fit into a group of people. I was watching a video once online that shared some interesting ideas that social norms and peoples desires to conform to social norms is built into our DNA. The video explained that in our evolution development we as a species had adapted a survival instinct to confirm to these norms as to be part of the group or tribe. If one of the members did not conform to the social norm, they would be cast out of the tribe and their chances of survival would go down drastically. Because of this we have a biological driving force to conform to social norms. We feel this in the forms of emotions such as embarrassment and shame. In my personal experience, these are the emotions I feel when I do something I perceive as immoral. Now the morals of one culture differ from the next and people learn and perceive their morality from their respective culture. But my belief is we are biologically driven to be moral creatures because we have a unique desire to conform to social norms because we want to be part of the tribe.

Kendall M12

The video I watched was Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace.

As an interviewer I think it’s important to ask questions that allow the applicant to answer critically of themselves. If they do answer critically I think this shows some level of self-awareness and ability to learn from the mistakes.

As a job applicant, I think confidence is key. Owning your past mistakes is also very important, as Dr. Bruce Weinstein puts it, future employers respect honesty. Combining all these characteristics give complete answers and shows that learning from mistakes is a trait you possess.

bolduc M12

‘Why Marijuana is illegal and Tobacco is legal” was an interesting video to watch and there was a lot about the two industries that coincide with one another. I’m currently taking the chemistry of cannabis course that’s being taught at the University and we have had speakers come in from the Alcohol and Marijuana Control board to come to discuss the legality of the substance for the state of Alaska. There is such a large push for an increase in testing for products like CBD, THC, CBN, terpenes, etc but the lack of experimentation and poor lab practices make it difficult to achieve an optimal guide for establishing proper testing procedures. This is extremely important in being able to provide consumers with the proper strengths and benefits from terpenes that they are searching for. I think the largest downfall is large companies trying to influence or send their products to labs known for giving high percentages. Large industries are going to consume the marijuana market just like the tobacco industry conglomerates. we are likely to see the partnership between large corporations like Marlboro, or Corona with dispensaries in the future.

Fischer Knapp – M12

Noam Chomsky has some interesting things to say about the illegality of marijuana. This was obviously presented before some states (including Alaska) made selling, producing and consuming marijuana legal.   Address the argument for or against illegal marijuana and if Noam Chomsky’s points have credence.

I very much agree with the points that Chomsky made. The war on drugs is one of many examples where the US government has put the possibility of profit above doing what is most logical. Another good point about the legality of tobacco vs. marijuana is the length of time that each drug has been part of our culture. A big reason that tobacco is legal is because of how long we have been using it, where as marijuana became popular in the US much more recently. It’s already being shown that legal marijuana is a very profitable industry, and as with any drug, being aware of its effects and educating the public will help it fit into society much better. Hopefully we can continue to make progress with logical regulations for drugs.

M12 Huynh

My thoughts on Noam Chomsky’s perspective on Marijuana vs. Tobacco would be that I agree with what he has to say when it comes to how tobacco makes more profit being legal, since it is less accessible to make then that of marijuana, where anyone could easily grow it. The idea that one drug is legal than the other shows how, to a point, the law was placed just to keep a market that is easily profitable to everyone not legal to do. The control on Tobacco is easy since many people cannot excessively produce tobacco from their houses, which makes it easier to sell legally with profit by certain individuals. But things such as marijuana, where many people can produce it easier, it becomes harder to profit off of. So by making it illegal, certain individuals are able to stop that easy business not primarily because it’s a drug to keep away from the public, but because the public could easily sell it just like industrial manufacturers, which certain individuals do not want to happen.

Brooke Bolduc M1

Hello Everybody! My name is Brooke Bolduc and I created a video introduction for you all but apparently my file size was too large to post, so I’m going to share this for now and then work out the technical difficulties with the video. Anywho, I’m a junior at UAF, I’m located in Fairbanks and …

Introduction

 

rahuntleyjr

          Hello everyone. My name is Rich and I am married to my best friend Crystal who I met at age 12 in junior high school. Between us we have 5 children; her having three grown boys and one grown daughter, and I have one grown son, making us “empty-nesters.”We also have 9 grandchildren with one, (a boy) due this March. Crystal’s side has produced all of our grandchildren for now, but maybe when my son settles down, it will be my turn. I am majoring with a Bachelors of Applied Management and minoring with a Associate of Applied Science in Aviation Maintenance. I was in the Navy active duty for 6 years and 18 years in the Air Force Reserves, with two deployments to the Middle East with the Air Force, including multiple TDY’s. One errand I get to run tomorrow morning is to buy a new laptop to replace my almost 9 year old laptop I currently utilize. With this I will be able to do a better video introduction of myself. I look forward to interacting with you and wish all of you a blessed day!

Dean M12

  1. Why marijuana is illegal. Does Chomsky’s argument about why marijuana is illegal still apply? How might he change his argument now that some states have made it legal?

 

 

I really enjoyed the view that Mr. Chomsky holds on marijuana, and I think there are areas of his views that do apply still. This is definitely a market avenue that really potentially has a lot to offer in economic revenue. It’s taxable and states make a considerable amount from its sales once it has been legalized.

Dean Module 7

Who should pay the cost for protecting the environment? This is a question of social justice. Two popular answers are currently in circulation:

  1. Those responsible for causing the pollution ought to pay.
  2. Those who stand to benefit from protection and restoration should pay.

I think both ends of the spectrum will have to participate if we intend on seeing a beneficial change in environmental protection. The side that causes the pollution needs to focus on efforts to better their environmental impact and those who support the protection and restoration should help support the transition of industries, groups and companies who want to leave a better imprint on society. It’s very easy to see where people view the polluters as those to pay the cost of environmental restoration, kind of the ‘you break it, you buy it’ idea. If you destroy something or pollute something important in the environment or an ecosystem, then it’s your responsibility to fix it. On the other hand, it’s very easy to see the viewpoint from the other side, if the environment is something you want to protect and stand up fir, then you should be the one putting in the time, energy and allocating costs to its survival.  At this point I think we’re still at the ‘finger pointing’ stage so to speak and while the automatic group to blame is the ones who pollute and harm the environment, in the end I think it come down to both groups participating equally.

M4 – Carter

The article, In Defense of “Sweatshops’, by Benjamin Powell, argues that as Americans, we would not want to work hard for low pay. Working in a sweatshop is not acceptable for us; however, it is okay to do this in other countries, with the focus being on third world countries. The cost of living is very low, and he believes that the wages made from American companies is adequate to live on comfortably. He describes the 15-year-old girl coming on a television show interview to talk about working conditions in 1996 when Kathy Lee Gifford’s clothing company was accused of using child labor to manufacture her merchandise. Gifford cried and apologized which lead to higher wages for her worker’s. The article states that the people in Honduras typically made $1.00 to $2.00 per day, and Gifford’s workers made over $3.00, so that made it okay in his mind. The author says that an alternative to sweatshops is that people, including children, go into prostitution; his argument says that sweatshops are preferable. He says that if the companies paid too much, it would not be cost effective for their company and people would lose their jobs. Powell states toward the end of the article that it takes time to raise living standards in a third world country, so in the meantime, he justifies sweatshops as being the best path.

I would argue that if the parents of these children that are forced into prostitution made enough money, then the kids wouldn’t have to do that. If the parents made enough money on their jobs to live comfortably, not sweatshop wages, then the children would not have to work at all, they could attend school and possibly do something else with their lives. There is no hope for a future other than being a factory worker. I think that when we are of the mindset that sweatshops are okay in other countries, then when sweatshops are found on US soil, people are not appalled enough to demand change. Powell’s arguments do not work for American sweatshops, because those wages here cannot support an individual or family. When sweatshops are found and broken up here, human trafficking is always behind it. People are commonly brought to the US from other countries with the promise of work, only to become enslaved to either work in a hidden factory or as prostitutes.

In an article entitled Sweatshops, they argue that working conditions are typically unsafe, there are not enough rest periods for workers, they work long hours such as sixteen-hour days, and can suffer the abuse of bosses including sexual abuse. Anti-sweatshop activism came to the forefront in the 1990’s when people discovered that the merchandise they wear was most likely made from child labor. They created enough press which forced large American companies to monitor their overseas factories. Even when terms for workers were agreed upon, China broke the rules to cover up worker abuse. Considering that, how effective are the standards that are put into place by companies such as Walmart? If workers in sweatshops are paid more money, then that would drive up retail prices for things we want to buy. It boils down to what do most Americans want more, inexpensive merchandise or humane treatment for other human beings? Although some progress has been made by a few large corporations, the way we consume, it looks like the ability to acquire inexpensive merchandise is winning, for now anyway.

Sources:

Benjamin Powell. “In Defense of “Sweatshops’.’ June 2, 2008. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved February 14, 2018 from the World Wide Web: https://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/y2008/Powellsweatshops.html

“Sweatshops.’ Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2014. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/PC3021900163/OVIC?u=p1841&xid=f48457d3. Accessed 13 Feb. 2018.

Dean Module 5 Post

Last week, your assignment was to watch “The Corporation.’   Although this film is over 15 years old, it is my hope it pulled at your heart strings and made you question some things about the corporate world.   This week, our Class Discussion centers around the film.   If you need instructions on creating a post, refer to previous modules.

Complete the following: Everyone must answer question #1 below.   Then you choose either A, B or C to answer (not all three). Copy the question (A, B or C) into your post so your classmates know what you are replying to.

  1. For you, what was the most alarming part of this film?
  2. C) One company in the film stated that “falsifying news is not actually against the law.’ Describe if you think this is an accurate statement in relation to ethical norms.   Defend your position.

Looking at this ethically, it incredibly disheartening to hear that companies or corporations believe that the falsification of news doesn’t constitute as a crime. I think the majority of people today would disagree with this statement, falsifying anything suggests you lied to cover up a darker truth or don’t care about the well-being of those around or who work for you, any kind of falsification is unethical. More specifically it really comes down to what the company/group/corporation is lying about, the more inappropriate areas being those that regard the well-being and safety of their workers, which would be a large reason for companies to silence news or reports to try and avoid further trouble or gaining a tarnished reputation. I think it would be interesting to do a social experiment and interview random people about how honest they think their local businesses and corporations are in several different categories, I think it would be interesting to also see if smaller local businesses have a better wrap than local larger businesses, and people’s overall perception of them. I would hypothesize that a lot of people don’t think about the unethical/honesty factor.

M4 – Carter

Benjamin Powell’s article, In Defense of “Sweatshops,’ is a non biased argument that ultimately ends with sweatshops being defended. The premise of his argument states that sweatshops provide a better alternative to many other forms of labor. In defense of this argument, Powell provides some interesting statistical information that sheds some light on sweatshop workers. The data Powell provides shows sweatshop workers often earn more than the average wage for their countries, provides income for individuals who would otherwise have no source of income and provides a better alternative to other forms of work such as prostitution. Powell also provides real world examples from the data collected and used in his argument. The data and real world examples used are compelling, however it’s still difficult to morally justify the working conditions these laborers are subjected to.

I will argue sweatshops as they are now are morally wrong and that there are alternatives to them. In order to do this, let’s take a look at one of Powell’s arguments. Powell’s argument gave an example of the factory in Bangladesh which laid off 50,000 children who then experienced worse living conditions. I will argue the point that poor working conditions in sweatshops are a negative externality to the cheap product prices we enjoy. Competition has driven prices down the equilibrium price of goods to be so low that factories have a difficult time paying employees a higher wage. When we go to Walmart and buy a new $5 shirt made in Vietnam we probably don’t think about who made the shirt, it was $5 so whatever right? Well, in order to make that shirt $5, other people likely suffered some pretty horrible working conditions.

How could the problem of sweatshops be remedied? I believe the answer lies in big business, politics, and most importantly the global community. Large conglomerates could help this situation by paying more for the goods they purchase, this however will likely not happen on its own. Politics can also prove to be a source of change, weather it be good or bad, solid political rulings could potentially help working conditions in third world factories. In the end, consumers and activists will likely have to bring awareness to the problem of sweatshops and bring about change that large conglomerates will respond to.

 

Source:

“Sweatshops.” Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2014. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/PC3021900163/OVIC?u=p1841&xid=f48457d3. Accessed 18 Feb. 2018.

M1- Carter

Personal ethical positions are made by in part by our experiences and surroundings as well as the instinctual knowledge inherent in humans. We as the human race are “programmed’ to want to survive, reproduce and further our species. In order to achieve this goal as the human race we have a set of codes to follow which help us define what we should and should not do. To a degree we all have an inherent ethical baseline, however the effects of our environment and surroundings also help guide our ethical positions.

As our civilization expands and cultures rise and fall we continue to change our ethical positions to fit what is right and wrong and to fit with what is or isn’t socially acceptable. The definition of what is right and wrong changes over time to adapt to society and externalities that come into play. For example people who drive combustion engine cars but are also environmentally conscience have a negative externality to deal with. The negative externality of driving is pollution, however this isn’t currently considered ethically wrong and the benefit probably outweighs the cost of using alternative more eco-friendly transportation. We are starting to see more changes to help our environment and generations down the road public pollution may very well be considered a ethically wrong.

Environment, experiences and human instinct help us develop and refine our ethical positions as we age individually and as a society. In the end humans achieve ever changing ethical positions to meet the societal expectations.  

M1 Williamson

How do we develop our ethics?

The word “Ethics” deprives from the Greek word ethos which can mean customs, habits, character or disposition.

The dictionary’s meaning for “Ethics” is ” Moral principles that governs a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity.”  In my own words I would say that ethics is a systems of codes that we live by, it also affects the way that we think, and act towards situations (positive or negative).  An individual develops ethical morals at an early age, the teachings of parents, educators and other factors such as; religion, culture, and philosophy trains an individual on what is perceive as right or wrong.

What are the primary sources for us to develop our ethical position?

The primary source for an individual developing ethical position during early childhood would be from the upbringing of him/her’s parents.  This usually shapes an individual’s fundamental attitude or outlook on things. Religion and later life experiences also comes into play after the upbringing phase of life is over, but not a primary source in my opinion.

 

 

C Holmes – M8

*I could not get the provided link to work correctly on my laptop. I researched this article from the footnotes of the supreme courts documents.

I thought that this was a very interesting case. The fact that any organization can become so corrupt never seems to amaze me. Even when this organization is supposed to be supporting and representing you. I absolutely think that the punitive damages were correctly awarded to Wells. Something like this should never exist and these companies need to be punished as to not let it happen again. The punitive damages were awarded based on the fact that the jury had found proof of the Local threatening Wells’ life. I don’t think it was all a dirty deal, however. They did have rights to do some of what they did. They had the authority, if not responsibility, to picket 2 hours a week. At first, they didn’t because they were ‘too busy’. This might have caused more damage to happen than necessary, and thus did not help their court case. Overall, I think that this was a somewhat complex case with a lot of different variables. I think justice was served, even if the Supreme Court erred in some of their rulings. If you perform sketchy deeds, it will catch up with you.

Module 7 (Simonds)

I am of the opinion that if you break it, you buy it. The company that is responsible, premeditated or accidental, for contamination of water supply or wildlife should, and usually does, pay for damages. This reasoning is also shown in environmental law. According to the EPA, “By law, the parties responsible for the use, transportation, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances and oil are liable for costs.” In the event that a company cannot pay for damages, or the responsible party cannot be found, the EPA has two federal funds to help pay for the damages. The two funds are the Superfund (CERCLA) that President Carter signed into law, and the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, which gets most of its funding from the excise tax placed on oil companies per-barrel.

Companies who benefit from the protection and restoration of lands should pay a tax to these funds, if they do not already. These companies should not be held responsible with fronting the costs of restoration to lands when the damages were done by another company, but in the event that they could profit from lands being cleaned up by either of the two EPA funds, the company should give something back to that fund. Companies should be held responsible for the damages they cause, and be held responsible for maintaining the funds used to respond to such events.

“Laws and Executive Orders.”  EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 08 Sept. 2016. Web. 04 July 2017. <https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/laws-and-executive-orders>.

“The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF).”  The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF). National Pollution Funds Center, 21 Dec. 2016. Web. 04 July 2017. <https://www.uscg.mil/npfc/about_npfc/osltf.asp>.

Closing the Deal (Garcia)

What weight should Jean give to self-interest in her deliberations? What do you think she should do? What would you do?

As a single mother with two children, Jean may want to give more weight to her self-interest and use the tactics taught to her to close the deals. However, she has been unable to do this with previous clients, and this may be impossible for her to do.
I think she should remain true to herself and maintain her standards of morality. It takes a certain type of person to use those kinds of tactics to “make a sale”. I’m not saying these types of people are immoral, I just think they do not see the tactics as deceptive the way Jean does.
I would look for other employment. I would not be able to go through the dramatics of the “phone call to headquarters” and the staged argument to make a sale; I would feel like a liar and would not be able to feel like that day after day.

Module 5 (Simonds)

“What is the problem of “vanishing individual responsibility?’   How can a culture of individual responsibility be created or maintained in a corporate setting? What is your view of corporate responsibility? Check out Case 5.1 “Yahoo in China’ for additional thoughts.”

In a corporate setting, individual responsibility is a very difficult and inefficient idea when you look at a result of a finished team product. If an entry-level employee makes an error in their work, then the company is able, as a whole, to remove and replace that individual, without a very large loss. But, if the error was in an accumulated framework, including multiple individuals and their own works, then the problem shows itself. In a group contributed product, it is difficult to assign blame onto a single individual. For example, if a consumer buys a landline, and the landline is faulty, who do you assign the blame for it’s brokenness to? The electrician who installed it? Perhaps one of the assembly line workers? Or is it the foreman’s fault for not observing the faulty product and the error that made it faulty in the first place? It is easier for the entirety of the company to take the blame, and send a replacement product. The probability of the this problem arising increases when a hollow corporation uses foreign manufacturing methods and products. If a company is supplied different products from different sources, it enlarges the area of error, and the pool of individuals that would be at fault.

The only possibility, that comes to mind, of a company running efficiently off of individual responsibility successfully, would be a company that manufactures its own products, and that minimizes worker interaction within the corporation, in regards to the creation of products. This way, if there is a product-wide fault, then the company would be able to locate which part of the framework housed the fault, and who designed it that way. It is simply easier and better looking for a company to take the brunt of the blame as a whole and issue a product recall, then to find and pin the blame solely on a single individual. Examples of this happening can be seen throughout history by Car companies, such as the 9 million car recall by Toyota in 2009 and 2010.

Module 4 (Melchior)

 

In Defense of Sweatshops

The author of the article “In Defense of International Sweatshops’  asserts that sweatshops in developing countries especially in southeast Asia and South and Central America are beneficial to the workers. This is in contrast with a majority viewpoint that sweatshops are bad to both the factory workers and the U.S economy. The author, Benjamin Powell justifies sweatshops by arguing that essentially a bad job is better than no job especially when no better available alternatives exist in their country.

Another valid argument for overseas sweatshops is the wages provided are actually better in contrast with the national average in 9 of the 11 countries in their survey.  The example used in the article was of Kathy Lee Gifford’s Honduran sweatshop. Although one of her factory workers was averaging $3.10 a day, she was still earning a dollar more a day than 50% of the country. The article summarizes this concept with “…the U.S. media compared $3.10 per day to U.S. alternatives, not Honduran alternatives. But U.S. alternatives are irrelevant. No one is offering these workers green cards.’

 

Arguments Against Sweatshops

There are many arguments against sweatshops both from an economic and social perspective. Critics of sweatshops argue that outsourcing jobs overseas hurts American workers by taking jobs away from them. Also, overseas factory conditions are abusive and dangerous. Sweatshop factory employees are known to work long hours deprived of meal and restroom breaks, denied legal protections for minimum wage and sexual harassment, and endure unregulated safety standards and bodily injury.

The overall argument is that basic human rights are being violated. The foundation of the issue for some sweatshop critics is people before profit and that’s not what’s happening.

 

Conclusion

After doing more research, the data supports the  defense of international sweatshops. Another article co-authored by Powell states “In most countries the protested wages are more than 60 percent of the average’.  Also, taking into consideration the arguments against sweatshops, they still are better than the alternative. According to Powell’s article “In Defense of Sweatshops’, the alternative for laid off overseas factory workers is sex work. Another article on the opposing views of sweatshops tells of the alternative to child labor for some Indian families is selling their children to traffickers who often mutilate them for more profits. I think the most convincing part of the argument for me personally is looking at the situation to scale. Comparing worker wages to wages inside of that country not the U.S is important. The data collected on worker wages compared to national averages provides solid support in defense of sweatshops.

Wrongful Beneficence: Exploitation and Third World Sweatshops-  https://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.library.uaf.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=46320223-4512-43e9-953e-5fbba9478cc3%40sessionmgr4007&vid=4&hid=4104

Sweatshops and Third World Living Standards: Are the Jobs Worth the Sweat?-  https://www.independent.org/pdf/working_papers/53_sweatshop.pdf

Overview- Sweatshops: Opposing Views-  https://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=19404905dc531f1b8af14f1bbd4490f1&action=2&catId=GALE%7C00000000LVZ8&documentId=GALE%7CPC3021900163&userGroupName=p1841&jsid=f8d20a8f5e8c472f6ec251356fd9ca23

 

M1 (Sterns)

From what I know about ethics is that we gain ethics though the pursuit of knowledge and education. Schools and churches are our primary sources of developing ethical position. Apprentice work  or fulfilling any type of job duty adds to ethical development.  Since early ethics it has made  improvements through trial and error. The best ethics is good conduct.

M1 (Ballou)

 

Our ethics are derived from the culture and society that we are raised in. From childhood to adulthood, we learn our ethics from watching the people around us and from the punish vs. reward system in life, also called utilitarianism. If a child observes their parents stealing and committing other reckless crimes, isn’t the child more likely to steal and cause harm to others because that child has had different ethics established in their life? Utilitarianism is the idea philosophy that every decision we make is an effort to maximize the amount of happiness we feel. If a child is punished for stealing a chocolate bar and the punishment caused more unhappiness than the amount of happiness brought by stealing and eating the chocolate, then the child is not likely to steal. This child will likely consider stealing as unethical in the future. A person may also decide their ethical stand point so that it aligns with what makes them happiest. Consider a young woman who is a new drive and is very much against speeding. Ethically speeding is wrong to her because of the dangers it poses to the speeder and the other drivers on the road. After a few months of driver this now experienced driver realizes that driving fast can help you if your late, seem more time efficient, and can be fun. This young woman has changed her ethical position coincide with what makes her happy.

M11 – Sellin

After reading Chapter 11 (and the Cases), choose a topic in the text (Affirmative Action, Comparable Worth, Sexual Harassment, etc.) or bring in another example of job discrimination (age, sexual orientation, disability, etc.) and provide your insight into the impact it has on the employee, other staff, work environment, organizational culture, etc. Provide documented facts from an outside example.

Discrimination against someone’s sexual orientation in the workplace affects everyone, not just the one being discriminated against. The person being discriminated can affect their mental and even physical health. Just like everyone else, these people, have no control over who they are and that can affect them emotionally. Once these things are affected then they can’t perform their duties the best that they can because they have to worry about the discrimination. Employers that have problems with discrimination will have a high turnover rate because they can’t retain employees. Unemployment is higher among this population. According to The Williams Institute “Because of
discrimination, and fear of discrimination, many LGBT employees hide their identities, are paid
less and have fewer employment opportunities than non-LGBT employees,” (Williams Institute, 12)

https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Sears-Mallory-Discrimination-July-20111.pdf

Pittsenbarger M11

Angie Pittsenbarger

M11

I believe that discrimination happens in the workplace more often than not. I used to work with a teacher who was a single man with no children. He was always complaining when mothers would take a sick day in order to take their kids to a doctor’s appointment or stay home with an ill child. I would sit in the lunchroom and hear him vent about how he had to stay and work the afterschool sessions because moms with kids would get to stay home. He would say that he was going to find a kid so he could take days off too. We women in the room would defend that, (especially single moms) don’t have choice, unless they had to bring their sick child to work with them, which I have also witnessed.

As a mom who had the privilege of staying home with my children for 12 years, I realized that I was spoiled, because now, as a working parent, I would not have known what to do if I had a job back then. The Sick Leave Act states that “employees are entitled to use up to 8 absent days per year in order to care for an ill child younger than age 16, on account of their accrued personal sick days’. I wish this certain man would understand this. I kept telling him, ‘just wait till you get married and have kids,’ hopefully he will have a different opinion. I believe this has caused some quiet resentment in our work environment, but since he is no longer employed with us, he can go bug some new co-workers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

All Rights, The Sick Law Pay: Absence Due to a Sick Child. 17 February 2017

Malik Allen- Module 8

Ladies and Gentleman,

As we approach the end of this semester, pressure and stress seem to grow at  extraordinary rates. With this said I leave you with this video and inspirational quote. Stay Strong, Prevail, and  Succeed.

“If a man does not have the sauce, then he is lost. But the same man can be lost in the sauce.”- Gucci Mane

M3 – Rosander

  1. For utilitarianism I think it would be best for a government to bailout a bank to keep them in business. The five largest banks in the United States made up for more than 50% of the economy. If one of these banks were to fail, there would be a massive tank of the US economy, affecting most if not all of the population. Even though the government is using tax-payer to pay for the banks, it is still is the populations best-interest to make sure one of the largest sources of income don’t fall out.

    2. It can be very unjust to to accumulate wealth in some cases. One such case could be wanting to privatize a basic human right such as water. The only sound reason I can understand from trying to make this move would be to try and maximize profits while being horribly immoral.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iGj4GpAbTM

Introduction

Good Afternoon;

I am Cheryl Silas resident of Northway Alaska currently living in Fairbanks Alaska, married to Robert Silas together we have four children and eight grandchildren.   This will be my third year in college and I’m almost there, end goal on degree will be BA with a minor in Business Administration.   I look forward to reading and learning from all of your post and hope that we will someday meet in person.   I wish you all the best of luck in your endeavors.   It’s been a long haul and I am tired.

Feeling Hopeful,

Cheryl Silas

Ryan Kramer Introduction! Hopefully it works now

Hello!

Looking forward to a great semester with all you lovely people. Let’s all put together our strength and hope for a heat wave to at least bring it above -20. Good luck to everyone and I’m eager for all of the insightful discussions I get to read as well as share!

Thank you,

Ryan

Peter Freymueller Introduction

Hello everyone!

I’m Peter Freymueller, and I’m born and raised in Fairbanks Alaska. I am majoring in Accounting and Finance and am in my second year here at UAF. Although I was born and raised here I’ve spent a considerable amount of time traveling the world. I’ve spent upwards of a few months in both Europe and New Zealand. I have also been to Korea, China, Japan, Australia, Mexico, and plenty of places around the United States. I’m pretty quiet but if you get to know me, you’ll figure out that looks aren’t always so deceiving. I’m not sure if that’s accurate or even what that means, to be honest, but I feel like it sounds pretty relevant to the situation. I’m looking forward to having a really fun semester with the class!